1. toabide by
Meaning; (formal) to accept and act according to a law, an agreement, etc.
Example: Motorists who do not abide by the rules of the road should be
2. parliamentary democracy
Meaning: a system of government in which candidates are voted to represent
the people of a country in a national parliament or assembly
Example: Freedom of speech is usually one of the rights enjoyed by citizens in
a parliamentary democracy.
3. to adhere to
Meaning: to behave according to a particular law, rule, set of instructions,
Example: Governments which fail to adhere to their election promises
generally become unpopular very quickly.
4. constitutional government
Meaning: connected with the laws which a country is governed by
Example:The media have an important role to play in reporting on the actions
of politicians, to ensure the proper functioning of constitutional
5. the executive branch
Meaning: that part of the government organisation responsible for
implementing laws and decisions
Example: The enforcement of policies affecting schools and hospitals is the
responsibility of theexecutive branch of the government.
6. the legislative branch
Meaning: that part of the government responsible for making laws
Example: Laws relating to human rights have been passed by the legislative
branch of many national governments.
7. the separation of powers
Meaning: the principle that separates government authority into three
branches – legislative (the Parliament or Senate), executive (the President or
Ministers) and the judiciary (the judges and courts).
Example: In the USA, the independence of the courts from the government is
safeguarded by the separation of powers.
8. to adopt policies
Meaning: to start to use particular policies
Example: In order to deal with traffic congestion, the government must
adopt policies to restrict the use of private cars.
9. to impose spending cuts
Meaning: to introduce new rules to spend less money on something
Example: It is essential for the authorities to impose spending cuts on space
programs in order to fund health services.
10. to raise taxes on
Meaning: to increase the amount of tax on something
Example: Governments should raise taxes on cigarettes to persuade more
people to give up smoking.
11. to curb public spending on
Meaning: to restrict what the government spends on something
Example: I would argue that it is preferable to curb public spending on
building new roads rather than to impose spending cuts on education.
12. to allocate resources to
Meaning: to make money and materials available to do something
Example: If governments allocate more resources to improving public
transport, this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities.
13. to introduce restrictions on
Meaning: to limit what people can do or what can happen
Example: The government must introduce restrictions on smoking in public
14. to infringe on/upon something
Meaning: to limit somebody’s legal rights
Example: Governments must sometimes infringe upon individual freedoms
in the wider interests of society.
15. to be a government priority
Meaning: something which is so important that the government should deal
with it first.
Example: In developing countries, spending on health and education should
be top government priorities.
16. to prioritize expenditure on
Meaning: to put the need to spend money on certain things first
Example: I believe that it is important to prioritize expenditure on medical
research in order to save lives.
17. to provide funding for
Meaning: to give money to enable something to be done
Example: Providing funding for health care must be a priority of
18. high on the agenda
Meaning: something which is among the first things in the list of actions to be
Example: The rehabilitation of prisoners must be high on the agenda of
prison authorities everywhere.
19. to exert pressure on
Meaning: to use power to influence somebody or something
Example: Environmental organisations should exert pressure on governments
to invest in renewable energy projects.
20. to form a pressure group
Meaning: to organize a group of people who try to influence the government
to achieve the action that they want.
Example: Activists in my country have formed a pressure group to persuade
the government to close nuclear power stations.
21. to provide public subsidies for
Meaning: to give government money to reduce the costs of services or to
produce goods in order to keep the price low
Example: In order to promote agriculture that is environmentally-friendly, the
government should provide public subsidies for organic farmers.
22. international bodies
Meaning: organizations which operate in many countries
Example: National governments ought to give funds to international bodies,
like the Red Cross and the United Nations, to deal with emergency situations.
23. national and local authorities
Meaning: government organizations acting at a national level or within a
smaller, local area
Example: Tackling crime is a responsibility of both national and local
24. non-governmental organizations: NGOs
Meaning: a charity or association that is independent of government or
Example: Individuals could donate money to NGOs to help others in need of
food, shelter and medical services.
25. to campaign for something
Meaning: to take part in a series of activities in order to achieve a specific aim.
Example: People who are concerned about the environment should campaign
for stricter controls on pollution.
26. government decision-making
Meaning: the process of deciding about something official
Example: Pressure groups are sometimes able to influence government
27. to impose an official ban on
Meaning: to say or declare that something is not allowed
Example: Governments ought toimpose an official ban on the use of mobile
phones on public transport.
28. government sponsorship
Meaning: the act of providing financial support by the government
Example: Government sponsorshipof the arts is necessary if creative talent is
to be encouraged.
29. a welfare state
Meaning: a taxation system which allows governments to provide for the
economic and social well-being of its citizens
Example: In order to eradicate poverty, I believe that a welfare state should
be established in all developing countries.
30. a stopgap measure
Meaning: a policy or action adopted for a short time until some more
permanent solution is found
Example: Building more prisons will not solve the problem of rising crime
rates, but it is a stopgap measure which the government must take to protect